The ESC clamps the wafer to a dielectric ESC chuck surface by electrostatic pressure, or clamping / chucking force.
These ESCT ESC’s use Coulombic monopolar technology.
Some OEM ESC’s are also Coulombic (e.g. polyimide dielectric), other OEM ESC’s are J-R Johnson Rahbeck (e.g. TiO2 conductor) designs.
In all cases, ESCT new ESC’s use the existing OEM cathode and existing OEM power supplies. They are a direct fit replacement for OEM ESC’s.